Dental pulp is an ‘ecto-mesenchyme’ derived tissue as it has originated from the earlier interaction of mesenchyme with the neural crest. Several attempts have been made to isolate stem cells from dental tissues other than adult pulp, including deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament, dental follicle and apical papilla. But only few studies have been done on evaluating the presence of stem cells in dental tissues affected by a pathological process. All these studies evaluated the presence of stem cells in the normal tissues affected by inflammation.
A study by Attar and colleagues was published in the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry (J Clin Exp Dent. 2014;6(1):e53-9.) aimed to assess the possibility of isolation of stem cells from pulp polyps (chronic hyperplastic pulpitis), a pathological tissue produced in an inflammatory proliferative response within a tooth. It occurs in a vital tooth with a good blood supply when the pulp has been exposed to caries or trauma
The ordinary resource of MSCs is bone marrow (BM), while other sources like adipose tissue, umbilical cord and also dental pulp are considered as suitable candidates.
Dental pulp is an ‘ecto-mesenchyme’ derived tissue as it has originated from the earlier interaction of mesenchyme with the neural crest. Although dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) share common features with BM-MSCs, they may be more committed to odontogenic rather than osteogenic development. Here, there was an
The presence of stem cells in the pulp polyps may be attributed to stem cells proliferation and migration, but this presumption needs further basic cell biology research.
The use of PPSCs for clinical implications may have some limitations ,This would reduce their suitability for allogenic transplantation purposes. Furthermore, pulp polyps are mainly exposed to oral cavity contents resulting in a higher possibility of contaminations.
Generally, according to the results of this comparative study, the pulp polyp as a diseased tissue contains appropriate amounts of stem cells with differentiation potentials comparable to those of the functional normal pulp. They are non-invasively acquired tissue resources usually discarded during endodontic therapies. This may provide a chance to access a new possible source of stem cells for affected patients.